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Received Jun 22; Accepted Jan Associated Data Data Availability Statement The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article is available upon request from the corresponding author. Review A key short coming within many randomised controlled trials RCTs is their relatively short term follow-up. Specifically, the review aimed to identify relevant longitudinal studies relating to the longer term effects of: Maternal smoking during pregnancy on the child.

Infant low birth weight. Short-interval to subsequent pregnancy defined as less than two years. Assessment of studies Study selection took a step-wise approach. Open in a separate window. Flow chart showing the selection process for the systematic review. Quality assessment Critical appraisal of identified studies was undertaken with the aid of a known checklist. Data analysis A high degree of heterogeneity was identified between the studies meeting the inclusion criteria for the review in terms of study type, sampling and methods used.

Results The search identified a total of records of which were excluded on the basis of title and abstract, leaving a total of for retrieval and full study assessment.

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Maternal smoking and child outcomes Health Maternal smoking during pregnancy was linked to a wide range of both childhood and adulthood health outcomes. Table 1 Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child health outcomes. Moderate Fertig, [ 52 ] To examine the importance of selection on the effect of prenatal smoking by using three British cohorts Data from 3 UK birth cohort studies used providing a large data set of 45, participants. Adjusted for a good amount of covariates.

Strong Golding et al.

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Case-control study of children. Development of childhood cancer was recorded. Moderate Hawkins et al. Strong Henderson et al. Moderate Koshy et al. Hand control and coordination assessed using known measures. Good covariates Moderate Little et al. Passive smoking of mothers also had weak effect. Moderate Pang et al. For primitive neuroectodermal tumours the OR was 0.

Some covariates included. Strong Power et al. Full data available for participants. Some covariates adjusted for.

Strong Power and Jefferies [ 21 ] Association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and obesity risk through childhood to age 33 Prospective GB cohort study of born in Assessed obesity status BMI at age Good range of covariates. Strong Ramadas et al. Association between the IL1RN gene polymorphisms with asthma; and 2. This suggests that exposure to maternal smoking may be more detrimental to some children than others.

Moderate Sadeghnejad et al. Moderate Severson et al. Case control study in the US and Canada. Childhood cancer Acute Myeloid Leukemia AML No statistically significant associations were found for maternal cigarette smoking when exposures were restricted to the month immediately preceding pregnancy; the first, second, or third trimester of pregnancy; or during the time the mother was nursing the index child.

Moderate Sorahan et al.

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Case-control study in England and Wales. Only class, maternal and paternal age controlled for. Moderate Sorahan and Lancashire [ 56 ] Relation between parental cigarette smoking and hepatoblastoma Case-control study in UK. Moderate Strachan et al. Birth order, birth weight and birth weight for gestation were not significant independent risk factors. Strong Thomas et al. UK cohort study of cohort members born in Adult metabolism diabetes No association was found between maternal smoking and blood glucose levels in offspring after accounting for birth weight for gestational age BGA and adult adiposity.

Strong Toschke et al. GB prospective cohort study. Diabetes No association between diabetes and postnatal maternal smoking was observed. Good range of covariates Moderate Toschke et al. Prospective cohort study in 3 health districts in England and Brazil. Longitudinal analysis of mother-child pairs across the UK. Prenatal exposure had no significant effects on test failure in adolescence.

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Some covariates accounted for Moderate Hutchinson et al. Good range of covariates Strong Maughan et al. No significant association between maternal smoking and child behaviour. Some covariates Moderate. Longitudinal study of families in Britain.